University Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

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  • α7β1 integrin regulation of skeletal muscle growth in response to mechanical stimulation
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Mahmassani, Ziad S.
    Description
    The α7β1 integrin has been proposed to serve as a mechanosensor and essential regulator of myofiber remodeling given its localization at the membrane and primary role in adhering the outer extracellular matrix to the inner actin cytoskeleton. However, additional work is necessary to affirm a primary role for the α7 integrin subunit in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. The purpose of this dissertation was to 1) use gene expression profiling to reveal potential mechanisms by which the α7BX2 integrin can promote an increase in muscle mass post- eccentric exercise, 2) determine the extent to which the α7BX2 integrin contributes to an increase in muscle mass after chronic overload, and 3) determine the extent to which α7 integrin overexpression or integrin ligand (laminin-111, LM-111) binding can improve the anabolic response to loading in aged mice. Aim 1 used microarray analysis using RNA extracted from skeletal muscle of wild type (WT) or transgenic mice (MCK:α7BX2 integrin; α7Tg), under sedentary conditions and 3 hrs after an acute bout of downhill running. The results suggest that the α7β1 integrin initiates transcription of genes that allow for protection from stress and modulation of protein synthesis, both which may contribute to positive adaptations in skeletal muscle with mechanical stimulation. In Aim 2, WT and α7Tg mice were subjected to myotenectomy (MTE) of the gastrocnemius muscles and subsequent chronic mechanical loading (CML) for 1 day (1D) or 14 days (14D). The results suggest that the α7β1 integrin augments muscle mass and adaptation, and several changes may account for this observation, including a reduction in damage and stress, yes-associated protein (YAP) content, and increased phospho- 4E-BP1 on Ser65. In Aim 3, α7Tg overexpression was not sufficient to rescue the anabolic response to chronic loading in aged mice, yet injection of LM-111 significantly restored integrin localization at the membrane and the anabolic response to a mechanical stimulus. Overall, the studies in this dissertation suggest that the α7β1 integrin is an important regulator of muscle remodeling that leads to an increase in mass in response to mechanical strain, and that manipulation of the extracellular matrix within the microenvironment may provide a novel approach towards maintenance of mechanosensing and the anabolic response across the lifespan. These observations in mice provide impetus for assessment of the relationship between extracellular matrix protein composition and subsequent α7β1 integrin-mediated remodeling within human skeletal muscle.
  • Molecular implications of prolonged DDT selection in Drosophila melanogaster
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Seong, Keon Mook
    Description
    From the advent of the use of synthetic insecticide in the first half of the twentieth century, insecticide pressure has played a critical role in the evolution of insect populations. Genome-wide monitoring for the effect of such selection has not only provided considerable insight into an understanding of these evolutionary dynamics but also as a way to elucidate changes in individual genes or gene families. Although prior comparative genetic and genomics studies have revealed a large number of individual genes and gene families that may be selectively advantageous for insects over evolutionary time scales, most studies have been limited in that the researchers did not have access to populations within a known common origin for which a given evolutionary selection pressure has been well-defined or documented. In this study, I analyzed the genomes and transcriptomes of a highly DDT-resistant (91-R) Drosophila melanogaster and its corresponding DDT-susceptible (91-C) strain in order to characterize the impact of prolonged DDT selective pressure on genetic diversity for those strains. Comparing the transcriptomic response to DDT in 91-R and 91-C, I identified a multigenic adaptive response to DDT in 91-R along with multiple roles for gene regulatory cascades around stress responses, cell survival, and neurological function. Furthermore, both the genotypic and phenotypic diversity of the phase I detoxification gene, cytochrome P450, as well as phase III detoxification gene, ABC transporter, suggest an adaptive evolutionary response to multigenerational DDT selection pressure between 91-R and 91-C. Taken together, these findings offer evidence for the impact of widespread insecticide selection pressure on genomic diversity in Drosophila evolution along with insights across the entire genome into the functional implications of such positive selection pressure.
  • Towards an agile hypervisor for software-defined networks
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Evchenko, Konstantin
    Description
    Software-Defined Networking (SDN) introduced a concept of separated control and data planes to allow programmable management of network resources. A network hypervisor is a middle layer that resides between these two planes and enables virtualization of the data plane to support efficient utilization and isolation of network resources in multi-tenant environments. Prior studies have shown the importance of hypervisors in solving a wide variety of problems in shared networking environments. In this work, we propose a design of a general-purpose, agile, and policy-aware hypervisor that can migrate virtual switches in the network. We introduce a model that formalizes the problem of virtualization and enables us to develop efficient algorithms for implementing migration. Through preliminary evaluation of our prototype we show the feasibility and low overhead of our hypervisor.
  • Establishing Procedures and Guidelines for Pedestrian Treatments at Uncontrolled Locations
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Baireddy, Raghunandan
    • Qi, Yan
    • Fries, Ryan, N.
    • Zhou, Huaguo
    • Rab, Abdur
    Description
    Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users. The risks to pedestrians crossing at uncontrolled locations are much higher than at signalized intersections. There has been an increasing trend in pedestrian deaths during the past decade. Specifically, pedestrian fatality as percent of total fatalities indicates an increasing trend in a ten-year period from 2005 to 2014. Several research projects funded by both federal and state transportation agencies have attempted to identify effective strategies for improving pedestrian safety within their jurisdictions. However, very little research was conducted on pedestrian safety at uncontrolled locations in Illinois. The objectives of the project were to identify the best practices of approving pedestrian crossings and pedestrian-crossing treatments at uncontrolled locations and to develop procedures and guidelines to be used by the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) and local agencies. To achieve the research goal, the team conducted a comprehensive literature review of related studies and existing guidelines, a survey and interview of Illinois transportation engineers, statistical analysis of Illinois pedestrian-crash data from 2010 to 2014, and a field review of selected high-crash corridors (HCC) in Illinois. This study identified several common issues associated with the high-pedestrian-crash-prone roads, e.g., speeding, poor lighting, noncompliance with posted signage, inadequate or missing signage, or lack of conspicuity. Several geometric features were also proven to be related to pedestrian crashes; for instance, long crossing distances, insufficient sight distance, and inappropriate placement of bus stops and parking were proved to affect pedestrian safety. In addition, pedestrian-crossing treatments were classified into five categories in the study, and their effectiveness and suitable conditions were assessed and identified. Based on the research findings, a guidebook was compiled with a comprehensive discussion of strategies and treatments to enhance pedestrian safety at uncontrolled locations. The target audiences for this guidebook are transportation professionals, highway designers, traffic engineers, law enforcement officers, and safety specialists who may be involved in efforts to reduce pedestrian crashes at uncontrolled locations.
  • Sensor-based closed-loop monitoring of concrete extrusion technology for applications in large-scale construction
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Zhang, Duncan
    Description
    As 3D printing technology moves into large-scale commercial applications, ensuring consistency in products, especially when using concrete, is a significant challenge. Unlike traditional thermoplastic filaments used today, concrete possesses process parameters that can vary greatly and cause complete structural failure. Therefore a solution is to integrate real-time analysis of defects and correct them during the extrusion process. Specifically, we propose an optically precise linescan camera in two configurations as the main sources of feedback data. For testing, the sensors are directly implemented in the extrusion assembly and collect real-time data with a scale model machine. With the data gathered, we will qualify the design for the control feedback. Limits of self-adjustment, as well as the application to full-size operation, will also be reviewed.
  • Exploring image segmentation methods to segment tumors by training over a dataset marked by skilled professionals
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Somani, Varun
    Description
    This research uses chest CT scan images of lung cancer patients to examine current methods in image segmentation in the context of tumor segmentation. Potential benefits of the research include faster processing and detection time for patients as well as allowing doctors to rapidly proceed with the requisite procedures. We use both supervised and unsupervised methods to segment images. In terms of supervised methods, we use neural networks and SVMs with various “kernel tricks.” In terms of unsupervised methods, we use K-means clustering and Otsu’s method. Neural network gave the best result while other methods tended to have inferior performance. The results suggest that there is a possibility of further developing neural networks to conclusively solve the problem.
  • Microplasma jet array
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Tong, Zikang
    Description
    A microplasma jet array is a device composed of a two-dimensional array of micro-scaled gas channels that ignites flowing gas species into plasma-state jets. These devices operate at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The potential application for these devices is bacteria and biofilm inactivation and past literature reports have demonstrated success in doing so. The device implemented in this report differentiates from previous experimentation by utilizing a physical structure with potential for plasma breakdown with ambient air as the gas feedstock. This differentiation presents an advantage because the device can use natural and abundantly available gas as its feedstock. However, further testing must be performed to fully conclude this capability.
  • Page migration and placement in hybrid memory systems using machine learning algorithms
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Vemulapati, Vibhakar
    Description
    As we reach the end of DRAM technology scaling, the prevalence of new memory technology in computers is inevitable. Phase-change memory (PCM) is an emerging non-volatile memory technology which can be denser than existing DRAM cells, but is slower. A possible solution is a hybrid PCM/DRAM memory system where we have a large capacity PCM and a DRAM used as a buffer between the processor and PCM. We will investigate various page migration algorithms on the hybrid system to maximize utilization of faster DRAM to mitigate the performance slowdown associated with using PCM as main memory. We primarily investigate the effects of speculative pre-fetching of pages in memory from PCM to DRAM using machine learning algorithms. The page rank program that we tested had irregular memory access patterns that made it difficult to predict the pages that had to be pre-fetched, causing performance slowdown when compared to running the program without modification. The overhead of predicting the prefetch page far outweighed the performance increase achieved.
  • Methods of onset detection for the bowed violin and why they failed
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Walder, Samuel
    Description
    An onset in musical signals is the time at which a note begins. Onset detection is important in computer analyses of musical performances in order to determine tempo, rhythm, and correctness. In this research, both existing and novel methods of onset detection on a dataset of 200 violin onsets played in various styles are analyzed in this thesis. Then proposed is a method for creating more robust detection algorithms, specifically an onset detection algorithm suite that splits up the challenges of onset detection into smaller parts and solves them separately.
  • Acoustic modelling through optical modulation and post processing
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Martini, Amr
    Description
    The field of acoustic modelling is split into two major categories: simulation and sensing. Acoustic simulation works directly with physical first principles and has many important applications in mechanical systems simulations and the production of synthetic sounds. Acoustic sensing is the direct measurement of acoustical properties, and its most well-known application is audio recording. This thesis develops and compares multiple techniques to perform acoustic sensing based on optical modulation, specifically to sample the mechanical vibration of a stringed instrument. The optical signal is sampled and demodulated and then further processed digitally using methods in acoustic simulation to compensate for unwanted effects. Each technique offers its own set of challenges and drawbacks, so to overcome these challenges, a hybrid solution is proposed that could offer better performance with a slight increase in overall complexity of the system.
  • Verify CMOS inverter circuit model using thin variable technique
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Meng, Yu
    Description
    There has been progress in verification of nonlinear and hybrid systems in the recent years using algorithms that combine simulation data with model-based sensitivity analysis. These approaches only handle closed models, that is, models without inputs. The naïve introduction of models of input signals breaks these approaches, as typical inputs (fast sigmoids, discontinuous functions) for analog and mixed analog-signal circuits make the system highly sensitive and the number of needed simulations grow rapidly. In this thesis, we present a new technique for verifying nonlinear and hybrid circuit models with inputs. A key result in the thesis shows that once an input signal is fixed, the sensitivity analysis of the model can be performed much more precisely. Based on this observation, we extend a discrepancy-based verification algorithm and apply it to a suite of nonlinear and hybrid models of CMOS digital circuits under different input signals. The models are low-dimensional but involve highly nonlinear ODEs, with nearly hundreds of logarithmic and exponential terms, and therefore, have challenged existing verification approaches and tools. Our implementation of the new algorithm is able to verify these models; some of our experiments analyze the metastability of bistable circuits, which involve very sensitive ODEs. Our results not only demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, but also provided interesting insights like the close connection between metastability recovery time and sensitivity.
  • A framework for implementing interactive algorithms on distributed systems
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Mudaliar, Vikram
    Description
    In this thesis, we build a framework for implementing iterative algorithms by abstracting the code for node communication. This thesis explains the building of said framework using a distributed algorithm and introduces the tools and methods used. First an algorithm was implemented and tested out on a testbed of 15 Raspberry pi’s. After the desired functionality was met, we proceeded with abstracting the code so that similar iterative algorithms could reuse the parts of the code that dealt with internode communication and communication link setup. This work is funded in part by the National Science Foundation.
  • A History of the Department of General Engineering 1868-1995
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Engineering Publications Office
    • Jerry S. Dobrovolny, P.E.
    Description
    This history is in two parts. The first will cover the period from 1868 to 1945. The material is based on the "History of the College of Engineering of the University of Illinois 1868-1945" written by Ira O. Baker, CE '74 and Everett E. King. Also included are items given orally to the writer by his senior colleagues. The material covered since 1945 is based on the personal knowledge and records of the writer who holds a BS in general engineering.
  • Integral Abutment Bridges under Thermal Loading: Field Monitoring and Analysis
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Riddle, Joseph, K.
    • An, Huayu
    • Svatora, Jeffrey, S.
    • Wright, Beth, A.
    • Fahnestock, Larry, A.
    • LaFave, James, M.
    • Jarrett, Matthew, W.
    • Brambila, Gabriela
    Description
    Integral abutment bridges (IABs) have gained popularity throughout the United States due to their low construction and maintenance costs. Previous research on IABs has been heavily focused on substructure performance, leaving a need for better understanding of IAB superstructure behavior and interdependent effects. This report presents findings of a field monitoring program for two Illinois IABs (which supplements findings from a parametric study portion of the overall project that are summarized in a previous volume). The field monitoring program included collecting data about (i) global bridge movements; (ii) pile, deck, girder, and approach-slab strains; and (iii) rotations at different abutment interfaces. Field results have been compared to finite-element models of each bridge in order to provide further insight into IAB behavior. Field monitoring results corroborated that IAB longitudinal expansion and contraction is somewhat less than theoretical free expansion and contraction, and is influenced by bridge skew as well. Significant girder stresses were observed, particularly at the girder bottom flange, which should be considered in design. Pile strain values indicate there is likely some reserve pile-deformation capacity typically available.
  • QR factorization over tunable processor grids
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Hutter, Edward
    Description
    The increasing complexity of modern computer architectures has greatly influenced algorithm design. Algorithm performance on these architectures is now determined by the movement of data. Therefore, modern algorithms should prioritize minimizing communication. In this work, we present a new parallel QR factorization algorithm solved over a tunable processor grid in a distributed memory environment. The processor grid can be tuned between one and three dimensions, resulting in tradeoffs in the asymptotic costs of synchronization, horizontal bandwidth, flop count, and memory footprint. This parallel algorithm is the first to efficiently extend the Cholesky-QR2 algorithm to matrices with an arbitrary number of rows and columns. Along its critical path of execution on P processors, our tunable algorithm improves upon the horizontal bandwidth cost of the existing Cholesky-QR2 algorithm by up to a factor of c^2 when solved over a c x d x c processor grid subject to P = c^2 d and E[1,P^1/3]. The costs attained by our algorithm are asymptotically equivalent to state-of-the-art QR factorization algorithms that have yet to be implemented. We argue that ours achieves better practicality and flexibility while still attaining minimal communication.
  • Stereo matching with temporal consistency using an upright pinhole model
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Jiang, Yibo
    Description
    Stereo vision, as a subfield of computer vision, has been researched for over 20 years. However, most research efforts have been devoted to single-frame estimation. With the rising interest in autonomous vehicles, more attention should be paid to temporal consistency within stereo matching as depth matching in this case will be used in a video context. In this thesis, temporal consistency in stereo vision will be studied in an effort to reduce time or increase accuracy by utilizing a simple upright camera model. The camera model is used for disparity prediction, which also serves as initialization for different stereo matching frameworks such as local methods and belief propagation. In particular, this thesis proposes a new algorithm based on this model and sped-up patchMatch belief propagation (SPM-BF). The results have demonstrated that the proposed method can reduce computation and convergence time.
  • Accelerating an efficient implementation of MLFMA with hererogeneous computing
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Ren, Wei
    Description
    This thesis investigates possible optimization on an efficient implementation of the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA), which is intended for solving integral equations for large problems. Though MLFMA is not inherently parallel due to its tree-like computational structure, if carefully optimized, it is suitable for parallelization as the throughput and computation power becomes higher on current GPU accelerators. By dividing problems into hierarchical multilevel groups, the MLFMA can be distributed to supercomputers like the Blue Waters, utilizing massive computing resources and balancing the workload. For solving large problems with stability and fast convergence rate, several different iterative solvers are written using PETSc (Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation) math library routines in the MLFMA and compared for performance. The use of GPU accelerators has also been implemented in CUDA C++ and showed great improvement on Blue Waters.
  • Technical overview of public XSEDE authentication services
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Basney, Jim
    • Navarro, John-Paul
    • Liming, R Lee
    Description
    This is a technical overview of the public authentication services that XSEDE offers and the specific features each offers. This document offers more detail than is provided by the standard XSEDE documentation.
  • Prostate cancer diagnosis with deep learning
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Wang, Bangqi
    Description
    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers and the second leading cause of death among American men. However, prostate cancer diagnosis is one of the most urgent problems confronted by scientific research. Accurate prostate cancer diagnosis needs a great degree of medical knowledge and is usually based on experience. It is hard for ordinary men to diagnose prostate cancer by themselves. This project aims to eliminate the knowledge barrier and provide a precise and effective method using deep learning. This project uses a deep learning neural network to build a binary classifier for prostate needle biopsies from patients. The project enlarges the prostate cancer needle biopsies dataset using randomly cutting, builds the deep learning network binary classifier, and generates predictions for the biopsies. The classifier will assign a benign or malignant label to every biopsy with accuracy near 100%.
  • Strippable coal reserves of Illinois. part 2,
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Smith, William H.
    Description
    Two folded maps in pocket.
  • Classification of the Pennsylvanian rocks of Illinois as of 1956,
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Siever, Raymond.
    • Wanless, Harold R. (Harold Rollin), 1899-1970.
    Description
    Bibliography: p. 13-14.
  • A Noise Model for Beacons in an IoT Environment
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Chowdhary, Shreyans
    Description
    Bluetooth low energy is an upcoming wireless technology used by prominent researches to build a reliable indoor localization technology. This paper focuses the reliability of using such Bluetooth devices in retail environments. We carry out a series of experiments in an academic setting to evaluate the probability of receiving a packet and translate it into a noise model. These experiments are carried out for a range of broadcasting power and advertising intervals to build a robust noise model. Our noise model indicates that the probability of hearing a packet falls sub-linearly with distance. Furthermore, we develop a formula to determine the probability of receiving a packet as a function of distance, beacon power and beacon frequency.
  • Removal of algae from waste stabilization pond effluents -- A state of the art
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Evans, Ralph L.
    • Kothandaraman, Veerasamy
    Description
    Bibliography: p. 9.
  • Ground-water investigations for siting the superconducting super collider in northeastern Illinois
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Visocky, A.P.
    • Schulmeister, Marcia K.
    Description
    Cover title.
  • Rainfall intensity - Frequency data for Champaign-Urbana, Illinois
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Huff, Floyd A.
    Description
    Cover title.
  • Ground-water levels and pumpage in the East St. Louis area, Illinois, 1978-1980
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Richards, Susan S.
    • Collins, Mark A.
    Description
    Cover title.
  • Evaluation of use of polyphosphates in water industry
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Larson, Thurston Eric
    Description
    Reprinted from Journal American Water Works Association, v.49, no. 12, December, 1957.
  • Some idiosyncrasies of ground water
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Gerber, W.D.
    Description
    Reprint. Originally published: Journal of the American Water Works Association ; v. 22, no. 1 (January 1930).
  • Effects of channel dams on dissolved oxygen concentrations in northeastern Illinois streams
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Evans, Ralph L.
    • Butts, Thomas A.
    Description
    Cover title.
  • Spatial and temporal correlation of precipitation in Illinois
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Huff, Floyd A.
    Description
    Cover title.
  • Supplement II to Bulletin 21
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Edwards, Gail Phillips
    • Greenfield, Robert Edman
    • Buswell, Arthur M.
    • Gallaher, William Uren
    • McRoberts, Lewis Henry
    Description
    Enumeration continues from preceding title.
  • Chemical survey of the water supplies of Illinois: Preliminary report
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Palmer, Arthur William
    Description
    "Errata" on verso plate III.
  • Public ground-water supplies in Illinois
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Hanson, Ross Arnold
    Description
    Enumeration continues from preceding title.
  • The mineral content of Illinois waters
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Udden, Johan August
    • Parr, Samuel Wilson
    • Palmer, George Thomas
    • Bartow, Edward
    Description
    At head of title: University of Illinois bulletin, vol. 6, September 15, 1908, no. 3.
  • Cost of municipal sewage treatment plants in Illinois
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Evans, Ralph L.
    • Butts, Thomas A.
    Description
    Cover title.
  • Data on the ground waters of Lake County, Illinois
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Buswell, Arthur M.
    • McClure, S.M.
    • Gerber, W.D.
    • Tarvin, D.
  • Ground-water levels and pumpage in the Metro-East area, Illinois, 1986-1990
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Schicht, Richard John
    • Buck, Andrew G.
    Description
    Includes bibliographical references (p. 33).
  • The shape of raindrops
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Jones, Douglas Milton Avery
    Description
    Reprinted from Journal of Meteorology, v. 16, no. 5, October, 1959.