University Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

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Showing 241–280 of 2,363,893 items
  • Exploring the Benefits for Users of Linked Open Data for Digitized Special Collections: Google Analytics data summary
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Jett, Jacob
    Description
    In addition to one-on-one user interactions and a planned focus group, additional assessment methods, i.e., site traffic data gathered from Google Analytics and test queries using Google’s search engine, were used to produce supplementary benchmark data. The sections below summarize the facts observed from these two data collections.
  • Exploring the Benefits for Users of Linked Open Data for Digitized Special Collections: Benchmark case studies of two...
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Zavala, Melina
    • Kinnaman, Alex
    • Jett, Jacob
    • Cole, Timothy W.
    Description
    This report presents the results from a pair of case studies conducted as part of the Exploring the benefits for users of Linked Open Data for digitized special collections project. Each case study was produced from a series of interviews with users of digital special collections. The case studies compare the Motley Collection of Theatre & Costume Design1 (Motley) to the Harvard Theatre Collection2 and the Kolb-Proust Archive for Research3 (KPA) to the Bovary Manuscript Archive4 respectively. Each of the users was a volunteer and was asked to compare to digital collection websites to one another during the course of completing a series of user tasks which included assessing the overall layout and utility of each digital collection’s interface, searching for a specific resource, and characterizing how they might employ the collections in their research.
  • Verification of Illinois grouping code scheme for the Illinois portion of the USF&WS National Wetlands Inventory:...
    Scholarship
    Description
    First quarterly report to document classification of Illinois wetlands. A subsequent quarterly report was published (see http://hdl.handle.net/2142/96071). Additional reference documents include: Suloway, Liane and Marvin Hubbell (1994). Wetland Resources of Illinois, An Analysis and Atlas, Illinois Natural History Survey Special Publication 15.; and Cowardin, Lewis M., Virginia Carter, Francis C. Golet, and Edward T. LaRoe (1979). Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, RWS.OBS-79/31.
  • Improvisational and creative techniques employed by baritone saxophonist Ronnie Cuber on the blues and its variants
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Barnett, Adrian Arthur
    Description
    Ronnie Cuber stands out as one of the most notable baritone saxophonists in recent history. Throughout his career he has worked alongside a variety of notable musicians such as Slide Hampton, Maynard Ferguson, Eddie Palmieri, George Benson, Paul Simon, Eric Clapton, and Frank Zappa among many others. His approach to playing the baritone saxophone showcases his ability to incorporate his experience playing an assortment of musical styles from bebop and Latin music to funk, pop, and R&B. The focus of this project is to investigate the creative techniques employed by Ronnie Cuber in regards to his improvisations and compositions based on the 12-bar blues form. This includes transcriptions of eight of Cuber’s solos on five of his compositions. The transcriptions are accompanied by in-depth analysis and discussion on each of the selected works. The analyses will encompass harmonic and melodic creative techniques and material, idiomatic techniques of playing the baritone saxophone, quotes, etc., as well as discussing signature traits of Ronnie Cuber’s playing style such as reoccurring melodic ideas, consistent harmonic navigation over a specific chord type or set of chord changes, and structure of solos over the blues form. Following the solo analysis is a discussion of Ronnie Cuber’s original compositions based on the 12-bar blues form which addresses variations on both the form and harmonic structure.
  • Classification via Minimum Incremental Coding Length (MICL)
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Shum, Heung-Yeung
    • Ma, Yi
    • Tao, Yangyu
    • Lin, Zhuochen
    • Wright, John
    Description
    We present a simple new criterion for classification, based on principles from lossy data compression. The criterion assigns a test sample to the class that uses the minimum number of additional bits to code the test sample, subject to an allowable distortion. We rigorously prove asymptotic optimality of this criterion for Gaussian data and analyze its relationships to classical classifiers. The theoretical results provide new insights into the relationships among a variety of popular classifiers such as MAP, RDA, k-NN, and SVM. Our formulation induces several good effects on the resulting classifier. First, minimizing the lossy coding length induces a regularization effect which stabilizes the (implicit) density estimate in a small sample setting. Second, compression provides a uniform means of handling classes of varying dimension. The new criterion and its kernel and local versions perform competitively on synthetic examples, as well as on real imagery data such as handwritten digits and face images. On these problems, the performance of our simple classifier approaches the best reported results, without using domain-specific information. All MATLAB code and classification results will be made publicly available for peer evaluation.
  • Hilbert Functions and Applications to the Estimation of Subspace Arrangements
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Ma, Yi
    • Fossum, Robert M.
    • Rao, Shankar
    • Wagner, Andrew
    • Yang, Allen Y.
    Description
    This paper develops a new mathematical framework for studying the subspace-segmentation problem. We examine some important algebraic properties of subspace arrangements that are closely related to the subspace-segmentation problem. More specifically, we introduce an important class of invariants given by the Hilbert functions. We show that there exist rich relations between subspace arrangements and their corresponding Hilbert functions. We propose a new subspace- segmentation algorithm, and showcase two applications to demonstrate how the new theoretical revelation may solve subspace segmentation and model selection problems under less restrictive conditions with improved results.
  • Data for Chapter 4 of Distant Horizons
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Underwood, Ted
    Description
    Data to support chapter 4 of the book _Distant Horizons._ This includes mostly lists of words associated with specific literary characters. The file 4a will unpack into a folder of ~80,000 separate .tsv files, one for each character; the files 4b, 4c, and 4d unpack into a smaller number of larger files that aggregate characters. 4a is in effect a subset of 4b, c, and d, though it is formatted differently. For the argument based on this data, consult the book Distant Horizons, and the supporting code repository: https://github.com/tedunderwood/horizon/tree/master/chapter4.
  • Illinois State Water Survey 2009 Summary Report
    Scholarship
    Description
    Every day, ISWS scientists make significant strides in their efforts to solve society’s challenges and understand how best to use water resources. Survey research endeavors and services in 2009 reflect a continuing commitment to evaluate the quality, quantity, and use of water supplies in Illinois, the Midwest, and the nation.
  • Exploring the Benefits for Users of Linked Open Data for Digitized Special Collections, White paper #2: Analysis of...
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Zavala, Melina
    • Dubnicek, Ryan
    • Kinnaman, Alex
    • Jett, Jacob
    • Szylowicz, Caroline
    • Fenlon, Katrina
    • Cole, Timothy
    • Kudeki, Deren
    Description
    This paper reports on a research study conducted to evaluate experimental, LOD-based features of digital special collections, which investigated the question: how do these features affect the use of digital collections for research? Because humanities researchers are the primary user group for cultural collections, this study focused on what humanities researchers might gain from LOD-based enhancements to digital collections.
  • Food Donation for Schools
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Dietrich, Kathleen
    • Scrogum, Joy
    Description
    Dr. Kathleen Dietrich of Food Bus discusses how the program works with elementary schools to recover wasted food and donate it to those in need.
  • Provide fewer menu options to avoid over-preparation and/or high volumes of leftovers
    Scholarship
    Description
    Some items available in school lunchrooms which are considered “extra foods” of “minimal nutritional value” are not creditable in offer versus serve (OVS) programs. Eliminating such offerings can reduce confusion in pricing and record keeping. Providing fewer menu items creates less waste, can help prevent over-preparation of food or high volumes of leftovers, and helps to focus efforts on the improvement of food items being served.
  • Submit an original lesson plan on diverting food for animal consumption
    Scholarship
    Description
    Raising awareness of the magnitude of the food waste problem and the issues involved among the next generation, and also examining potential solutions with them, helps to ensure that students will integrate desired behaviors and carry them into their decision-making roles in the future. Changing procedures is important for your school today, but changing the mindsets of students is important for our society tomorrow.
  • Do a baseline lunchroom waste characterization (pre waste-free lunch day or policy implementation)
    Scholarship
    Description
    Before making any changes to your lunchroom procedures that result in the reduction food waste, it’s important to get a feel for the types and quantities of waste being generated on a typical day. A baseline waste characterization helps to identify the major categories of waste that need to be addressed. It can also highlight simple changes that you can make to achieve immediate results.
  • Use creative names to encourage interest in trying new foods, choosing vegetables, etc.
    Scholarship
    Description
    Research has shown that the simple act of giving a food selection an interesting, appealing name can increase the amount of that item actually eaten by students. This marketing technique is simple and costs nothing but the time to be creative. If even slightly more of an item is consumed rather than thrown out because of an appealing name, that's a worthwhile return on investment.
  • INHS Reports, Spring 2003
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Illinois Natural History Survey
    Description
    INHS establishes site for organic research | Cave amphipod respiration in southwestern Illinois; Weather radars reveal bird migration patterns | Largemouth bass virus: an emerging fish pathogen | Important note to subscribers | Species spotlight: striped skunk | Naturalist's apprentice: animals make scents--the pheremone game
  • Establish an on-site compost pile
    Scholarship
    Description
    Onsite composting of food waste has multiple benefits. On site composting reduces the amount of waste your institution is required to send to a landfill. Using the compost on the premises returns essential nutrients required for plant growth back to the soil. Additionally, well made compost prevents soil erosion and overall quality of local soil.
  • Store unused foods for representation or repurposing
    Scholarship
    Description
    Ideally, your food service planning should be such that leftover food is at a minimum. However, even well planned operations have unserved foods leftover from time to time due to attendance fluctuations, fluctuations in the number of students bringing their lunch as opposed to partaking of school meals, etc. Properly stored unserved foods may be repurposed to reduce waste and procurement costs.
  • Complete a case study on food waste prevention or reduction activities at your school
    Scholarship
    Description
    Case studies can serve as sources of inspiration or lessons learned for other organizations interested in reducing or preventing food waste. Sometimes the existence of a case study from a school or similar size or resources can help convince stakeholders that implementing a suggested change is possible.
  • Submit an original lesson plan on menu planning and food presentation and how it relates to food waste
    Scholarship
    Description
    Submit an original lesson plan, written by a representative of your school or organization, related to food presentation and how it relates to food waste. The lesson must address reduction of food waste in some way.
  • About The Green Lunchroom Challenge
    Scholarship
    Description
    PDF of the About the Project page of the Green Lunchroom Challenge web site.
  • [Green Lunchroom Challenge] Participants
    Scholarship
    Description
    List of schools that participated in the Green Lunchroom Challenge.
  • Green Lunchroom Challenge Baseline Form
    Scholarship
    Description
    Form for Green Lunchroom Challenge participants to collect baseline facility data.
  • Green Lunchroom Challenge Case Study Template
    Scholarship
    Description
    Template for schools to use to submit case studies to the Green Lunchroom Challenge team.
  • Smarter Lunchrooms Concepts and Food Waste Reduction
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Scrogum, Joy
    • Ajie, Whitney
    Description
    Whitney Ajie of University of Illinois Extension explains how schools can use USDA's Smarter Lunchroom concept to reduce food waste.
  • St. Louis Composting/Total Organics Recycling Services
    Scholarship
    Creator
    • Ryan, Sara
    • Scrogum, Joy
    Description
    Sara Ryan of Total Organics Recycling/St. Louis Composting explains how schools can collect food waste for composting.
  • Fabrication of metal-oxide thin-films and features on dissimilar materials via ion-assisted codeposition
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Koyn, Zachariah Taylor
    Description
    The merging of metal oxides and polymers has a number of interesting potential applications that rely on the wettability, optical, and electronic properties of the surface. One challenge in the fabrication of these dissimilar materials is that the heat often used to create oxide nanostructures results in the thermal decomposition of the polymer. This requires creative approaches to successfully merge these materials. Many current approaches involve the separate creation of metal oxide nanostructures, followed by some process of embedding them in an uncured polymer. Previous work has shown that ion beams have been used to sputter deposit metals, pattern polycrystalline metals, controllably oxidize metal surfaces, and induce chemical changes in the surfaces of polymers. Presented here is a single step technique that draws on these, utilizing dual ion beams to deposit, oxidize, and pattern Zn on Si and PDMS. Two ion beams are installed in a perpendicular configuration, with one normal to the substrate surface and the other parallel. The parallel beam passes over the substrate and impinges on a Zn target, sputter depositing the material onto the substrate. Simultaneously, the normal incidence beam impinges on the substrate surface, imparting energy and sputtering both the substrate material and the deposited Zn. The effects of changing the ion beam flux ratio (0.1-2.0), energy (500 eV and 1000 eV), species (Ar+ and O2+ for substrate irradiation, Ar+ for sputter deposition), and fluence (1E17 ions/cm2 and 5E17 ions/cm2) are examined. These factors allow for the comparison of different deposition rates, chemical effects, and surface evolution stages in the synthesis of these functionalized surfaces. Surfaces are characterized by several ex-situ techniques: topography (AFM), chemistry (XPS), and wettability (static contact angle). This technique has yielded a number of interesting surfaces. On Si, the formation of nanodots is seen under many processing parameters. These dots have no ordering, but their size (~20-100 nm diameter) and spatial density (1-100’s um-2) can be controlled by the flux ratio and ion energy. The codeposition on Si at higher total fluence is also shown to induce ripples in the Si surface in addition to the formation of nanodots, as is expected from normal incidence irradiation with the presence of small amounts of surface impurities. XPS has shown that the flux ratio can finely tune the amount of Zn deposited on the surfaces. On PDMS, all cases of irradiation, both with and without codeposition, have results in larger scale wrinkles to form on the surface (wavelength ~500-1000 nm) that are similar to previous work with oxygen plasma immersion. Notably, these are created with both O2+ and Ar+ ion beams. Atop this structure, the formation of nanodots is also seen. Again, these are not shown to have spatial ordering, but are larger than those seen on Si, ~75-200 nm diameter. These form at fewer combinations of processing parameters and are seen to preferentially grown in the valleys of the wrinkle pattern, specifically as they get larger. The ability to control the size and density of nanodots on PDMS with processing parameters is less clear than on Si. This work represents a relatively fast, scalable, low-temperature, single-step process to grow and functionalize metal-oxide nanostructures on polymers. The ability to functionalize flexible, transparent substrates with metal-oxide nanostructures offers exciting applications in areas such as flexible and wearable electronics, gas sensors, biosensors, and photonics.
  • The design and fabrication of a meso scale minimally invasive surgical robot
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Toombs, Nicholas Joseph
    Description
    Minimally invasive robotic Single Port Laparoscopic Surgery (SPLS) is of high importance, due to its ability to reduce operation times, recovery times, postoperative infection rates and improve cosmesis while providing surgeons with greater dexterity and precision than traditional SPLS techniques. Previous approaches to robotic SPLS rely on modifications to devices meant for multi-port procedures. These approaches suffer from larger port sizes and triangulation problems. Here, we propose a scheme for SPLS involving 6 degree-of-freedom robot manipulators and lumen design that translates the dexterity and triangulation capabilities of the human arm to the internal operating field using an insertion scheme where four 9 mm tools can be passed through a single 18 mm lumen.
  • Development of collagen scaffolds to address biomechanical design criteria for tendon–to–bone repair
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Mozdzen, Laura C
    Description
    The tendon-bone junction (TBJ) is a unique, mechanically dynamic and structurally graded anatomical zone which transmits tensile loads between tendon and bone. The TBJ repeatedly transmits high tensile loads to result in movement without failure by effectively dissipating stress concentrations which arise between mechanically dissimilar materials (tendon, bone). Upon injury, surgical repair techniques rely on mechanical fixation, and the local heterogeneities of the TBJ do not reform, causing poor functional outcomes (re-failure >90%). Biomaterial platforms and tissue engineering methods offer an alternative approach to address these injuries. Although current methods are moving towards multi-tissue regenerative approaches to address these injuries, it remains a challenge to fully characterize local mechanical and cellular heterogeneities within a single biomaterial using traditional techniques. Herein we describe a variety of collagen biomaterials which incorporate local changes and patterns in composition to create multi-compartment and composite scaffolds for the purpose of orthopedic regeneration. We demonstrate that these biomaterials exhibit enhanced, locally tunable mechanical properties, and are capable of providing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) signals in a spatially selective manner. We highlight tradeoffs and synergies in local cellular and mechanical behavior, which give rise to the mechanisms behind observed differences in bulk cellular and biomaterial behavior. This work provides key insights into design elements under consideration for mechanically competent, multi-tissue biomaterial platforms which drive MSCs towards spatially distinct lineages for orthopedic regeneration.
  • Consistent high performance and flexible congestion control architecture
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Dong, Mo
    Description
    The part of TCP software stack that controls how fast a data sender transfers packets is usually referred as congestion control, because it was originally introduced to avoid network congestion of multiple competing flows. During the recent 30 years of Internet evolution, traditional TCP congestion control architecture, though having a army of specially-engineered implementations and improvements over the original software, suffers increasingly more from surprisingly poor performance in today's complicated network conditions. We argue the traditional TCP congestion control family has little hope of achieving consistent high performance due to a fundamental architectural deficiency: hardwiring packet-level events to control responses. In this thesis, we propose Performance-oriented Congestion Control (PCC), a new congestion control architecture in which each sender continuously observes the connection between its rate control actions and empirically experienced performance, enabling it to use intelligent control algorithms to consistently adopt actions that result in high performance. We first build the above foundation of PCC architecture analytically prove the viability of this new congestion control architecture. Specifically, we show that, controversial to intuition, with certain form of utility function and a theoretically simplified rate control algorithm, selfishly competing senders converge to a fair and stable Nash Equilibrium. With this architectural and theoretical guideline, we then design and implement the first congestion control protocol in PCC family: PCC Allegro. PCC Allegro immediate demonstrates its architectural benefits with significant, often more than 10X, performance gain on a wide spectrum of challenging network conditions. With these very encouraging performance validation, we further advance PCC's architecture on both utilty function framework and the learning rate control algorithm. Taking a principled approach using online learning theory, we designed PCC Vivace with a new strictly socially concave utility function framework and a gradient-ascend based learning rate control algorithm. PCC Vivace significantly improves performance on fast-changing networks, yields better tradeoff in convergence speed and stability and better TCP friendliness comparing to PCC Allegro and other state-of-art new congestion control protocols. Moreover, PCC Vivace's expressive utility function framework can be tuned differently at different competing flows to produce predictable converged throughput ratios for each flow. This opens significant future potential for PCC Vivace in centrally control networking paradigm like Software Defined Networks (SDN). Finally, with all these research advances, we aim to push PCC architecture to production use with a a user-space tunneling proxy and successfully integration with Google's QUIC transport framework.
  • Towards next-generation degradable polymers via double amplification
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Wright, Justin David
    Description
    A refinement of the existing synthetic methods in the literature was developed in order to synthesize tris(aminomethyl)ethanes from pentaerythritol. The result was a scalable, azide free route that produced tris(aminomethyl)ethanol as the trihydochloride salt in high yield. In addition to this approach, a novel route was explored beginning from hexamine to synthesize tris(aminomethyl)methanes. When attempting to produce the trisamine from a (1,3,5)-triazaadamantane or a (1,3,5)-triazabicyclo- [3.3.1]nonane, retro-Mannich reactions were found to occur if a nitro group remained from earlier synthetic steps. Removal of this nitro group via reduction is expected to allow for the synthesis of tris(aminomethyl)methanes to occur as predicted. The concept of double amplification was explored in the context of developing novel triggered release systems with very rapid responses. The system explored in this work was designed to trigger in response to sunlight, using long-wave UV-sensitive photoacid generators as initiators, and acid amplifiers as the bulk phase. Small-molecule and polymeric acid amplifiers were designed, based on the known acid amplifier structures in the literature. It was found that three of the acid amplifiers decomposed rapidly upon initiation by elevated temperature. The decomposition products were characterized and support a decomposition-polymerization mechanism. In addition, a thermally reversible epoxy was designed based on preliminary results showing that electron rich 2,4,6-triaryl-(1,3,5)triazaadamantanes underwent thermal decomposition in water. When a triveratryl-substituted analog was heated in the presence of bisphenol-A-diglycidyl ether, no curing was observed. When the curing was conducted at room temperature, curing was observed, and it was found that it reversed at elevated temperatures.
  • INHS Reports, Spring 2007
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Illinois Natural History Survey
    Description
    Will the Emerging Bioeconomy Add to the Burden of Invasive Species Management? | The Black-Crowned Night-Herons of Lake Calumet Part II: Foraging Ecology and Contaminant Exposure | Establishment of Historic Fish Communities to Restored Illinois River Floodplain Lakes | Endangered and Threatened Plant Species Database | Exploring the Potential Influence of Fish Diversity as a Determinant of Ecosystem Properties in Aquatic Food Webs | Species Spotlight: Spring Ephermerals | The Naturalist's Apprentice: Field Marks of Illinois Butterflies
  • INHS Reports, Summer 2002
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Illinois Natural History Survey
    Description
    New Endowment Honors INHS Researcher | Some Recent Changes in the Illinois Flora | Effectiveness of Crop Rotation on Corn Rootworms | Emerging Issues in Catch-and-Release Angling | What Happened to the Franklin's Ground Squirrel? | Species Spotlight: Caddisflies | Naturalist's Apprentice: Build a Caddifly Larva and Case
  • INHS Reports, Spring 2001
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Illinois Natural History Survey
    Description
    Exotic Species Education and Outreach | Fruit Complementarity in Feeding Birds | Applying Geographic Information Systems Technology to the Ecological Risk Assessment Process in Illinois | Physiological Telemetry in Fisheries Research | Illinois Wilds Institute for Nature Summer 2001 Class Schedule | Illinois Habitats Poster Series: Two New Posters
  • INHS Reports, May/June 2000
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Illinois Natural History Survey
    Description
    The Easter Massasauga at Carlyle Lake | New Predators and Parasites of Earthworms in Illinois | New Predator Invades the Great Lakes | Smallmouth Bass and Artificial Reefs in Lake Michigan | Filling the GAP to Map Biodiversity in Illinois | Species Spotlight: American Robin | The Naturalist's Apprentice: Robin Crossword Puzzle
  • INHS Reports, Spring 2009
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Illinois Natural History Survey
    Description
    A Long-standing Tradition in Springtail Systematics at INHS | Flocks of Birds Out of Visual Contact? | Checkout our Upcoming Publications Calendar Sales Specials | Impacts of Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen Stressors on Large-mouth Bass | Science in a Web 2.0 World | Species Spotlight: Yellow Bellwort | The Naturalist's Apprentice: The Acrostic Poem
  • INHS Reports, Winter 2008
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Illinois Natural History Survey
    Description
    Evaluating Waterbird Use of Wetlands Restored through the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program | Sharing Biodiversity Data: Opportunities for Collaboration | Bioenergetics of Invasive Asian Carps | Recent INHS Publications and Educational Materials | Species Spotlight: Long-eared Owl | The Naturalist's Apprentice: Dissect an Owl Pellet
  • Novel lipid regulation of vacuolar fusion in saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Scholarship
    Creator
    Miner, Gregory E.
    Description
    Intracellular trafficking is essential for proper maturation and functioning of eukaryotic cells. The terminal stage of trafficking is the membrane fusion of two distinct compartments leading to the mixing of contents. In order to regulate this process organelles are enriched with specific fusion proteins termed SNAREs. While the core fusion machinery is well understood, relatively little is known about the role lipid regulation plays in membrane fusion. It has been well established that enrichment of specific regulatory lipids leads to recruitment and activation of the fusion machinery. Additionally these lipids are modified by specific kinases, phosphatases and lipases allowing regulation of the different stages of fusion. Furthermore, some regulatory lipids have been found to enhance the fission process. Taken together, it becomes evident that the dynamic lipid remodeling of membranes plays a key role in both membrane fusion and fission. In order to study in vitro membrane fusion with a system containing endogenous proteins and lipid, the vacuole from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is utilized. Yeast vacuoles undergo homotypic vacuolar fusion which is utilized to maintain homeostasis and occurs during inheritance. During the fusion pathway, vacuoles accumulate the glycerophospholipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P). PI3P is a positive regulatory of fusion that functions through the recruitment of multiple components of the vacuolar fusion machinery including the soluble SNARE Vam7. Vam7 interacts with PI3P through its PX domain and utilizes this interaction for proper localization to the vacuole. In Chapter 2 I show that the interaction of Vam7 with PI3P is allosterically regulated by the Vam7 Mid-domain (MD). I identified a polybasic region in the MD and found that mutating these basic residues to alanine, generating Vam7-6A, led to impaired vacuolar fusion. This was due to decreased association with its cognate SNAREs as well as the HOPS tethering complex. The reduced protein binding by Vam7-6A was not due to reduced anionic lipid binding as initially hypothesized but was associated with enhanced PI3P binding through Vam7’s PX domain. I now posit that binding PI3P with higher affinity allosterically inhibits binding to partner proteins. It can therefore be concluded that PI3P enrichment is necessary to initially trigger the fusion process through recruitment of fusion factors, but either the turnover of PI3P or the release of fusion proteins from PI3P is necessary for fusion to proceed. While enrichment of lipids can lead to organelle specific regulation, there are lipid regulation mechanisms shared throughout the cell. Of specific interest is the lipid phosphatidic acid (PA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) which are interconverted by the PA phosphatase Pah1 and the DAG kinase Dgk1. Previous work showed DAG acts as a positive regulator of vacuolar fusion and is proposed to reduce the force requirements of vacuolar fusion. I hypothesized that deletion of Dgk1 would lead to enhanced levels of DAG leading to enhanced fusion. In Chapter 3 I show that deletion of Dgk1 causes a significant enhancement in fusion and leads to a reduction in the force requirements for membrane fusion. However addition of DAG alone was unable to fully reproduce the Dgk1 deletion phenotype suggesting a reduction in PA was in part responsible for the overall fusion enhancement. In addition to PI3P, the vacuole is also highly enriched in phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2), a lipid shown to trigger vacuole fission. In Chapter 4 I show PI(3,5)P2 acts as a novel inhibitor of Ca2+ efflux during vacuolar fusion. I hypothesized that this inhibitory activity was through regulation of the Ca2+ efflux channel Yvc1. Surprisingly our study showed PI(3,5)P2 acts through activation of the Ca2+ influx channel Pmc1 rather than inhibition of Yvc1. This is in direct opposition to PI(3,5)P2’s role as an activator of Yvc1 in membrane fission. Taken together these findings demonstrate the complex nature of membrane fusion regulation by lipids and hopefully will serve as the basis for further investigation.